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Formal language means no personal pronouns, because the judges usually think it is wrong. A area Å angstrom unit Ai atomic weight of element i (2.2) APF atomic packing factor (3.4) a lattice parameter: unit cell x-axial length (3.4) a crack length of a surface crack (8.5) at% atom percent (4.4) B magnetic flux density (induction) (20.2) Br magnetic remanence (20.7) BCC body-centered cubic crystal structure (3.4) b lattice parameter: unit cell y-axial length (3.7) b Burgers vector (4.5) C capacitance (18.18) Ci concentration (composition) of component i in wt% (4.4) Ci concentration (composition) of component i in at% (4.4) Cv, Cp heat capacity at constant volume, pressure (19.2) CPR corrosion penetration rate (17.3) CVN Charpy V-notch (8.6) %CW percent cold work (7.10) c lattice parameter: unit cell z-axial length (3.7) c velocity of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum (21.2) D diffusion coefficient (5.3) D dielectric displacement (18.19) DP degree of polymerization (14.5) d diameter d average grain diameter (7.8) dhkl interplanar spacing for planes of Miller indices h, k, and l (3.16) E energy (2.5) E modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus (6.3) e electric field intensity (18.3) Ef Fermi energy (18.5) Eg band gap energy (18.6) Er(t) relaxation modulus (15.4) %EL ductility, in percent elongation (6.6) e electric charge per electron (18.7) e electron (17.2) erf Gaussian error function (5.4) exp e, the base for natural logarithms F force, interatomic or mechanical (2.5, 6.3) f Faraday constant (17.2) FCC face-centered cubic crystal structure (3.4) G shear modulus (6.3) H magnetic field strength (20.2) Hc magnetic coercivity (20.7) HB Brinell hardness (6.10) HCP hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (3.4) HK Knoop hardness (6.10) HRB, HRF Rockwell hardness: B and F scales (6.10) • xxiii xxiv • List of Symbols HR15N, HR45W superficial Rockwell hardness: 15N and 45W scales (6.10) HV Vickers hardness (6.10) h Planck’s constant (21.2) (hkl) Miller indices for a crystallographic plane (3.10) I electric current (18.2) I intensity of electromagnetic radiation (21.3) i current density (17.3) iC corrosion current density (17.4) J diffusion flux (5.3) J electric current density (18.3) Kc fracture toughness (8.5) KIc plane strain fracture toughness for mode I crack surface displacement (8.5) k Boltzmann’s constant (4.2) k thermal conductivity (19.4) l length lc critical fiber length (16.4) ln natural logarithm log logarithm taken to base 10 M magnetization (20.2) Mn polymer number-average molecular weight (14.5) Mw polymer weight-average molecular weight (14.5) mol% mole percent N number of fatigue cycles (8.8) NA Avogadro’s number (3.5) Nf fatigue life (8.8) n principal quantum number (2.3) n number of atoms per unit cell (3.5) n strain-hardening exponent (6.7) n number of electrons in an electrochemical reaction (17.2) n number of conducting electrons per cubic meter (18.7) n index of refraction (21.5) n for ceramics, the number of formula units per unit cell (12.2) ni intrinsic carrier (electron and hole) concentration (18.10) P dielectric polarization (18.19) P–B ratio Pilling–Bedworth ratio (17.10) p number of holes per cubic meter (18.10) Q activation energy Q magnitude of charge stored (18.18) R atomic radius (3.4) R gas constant %RA ductility, in percent reduction in area (6.6) r interatomic distance (2.5) r reaction rate (17.3) rA, rC anion and cation ionic radii (12.2) S fatigue stress amplitude (8.8) SEM scanning electron microscopy or microscope T temperature Tc Curie temperature (20.6) TC superconducting critical temperature (20.12) Tg glass transition temperature (13.9, 15.12) Tm melting temperature TEM transmission electron microscopy or microscope TS tensile strength (6.6) t time tr rupture lifetime (8.12) Ur modulus of resilience (6.6) [uvw] indices for a crystallographic direction (3.9) V electrical potential difference (voltage) (17.2, 18.2) List of Symbols • xxv VC unit cell volume (3.4) VC corrosion potential (17.4) VH Hall voltage (18.14) Vi volume fraction of phase i (9.8) v velocity vol% volume percent Wi mass fraction of phase i (9.8) wt% weight percent (4.4) x length x space coordinate Y dimensionless parameter or function in fracture toughness expression (8.5) y space coordinate z space coordinate lattice parameter: unit cell y–z interaxial angle (3.7) , , phase designations l linear coefficient of thermal expansion (19.3) lattice parameter: unit cell x–z interaxial angle (3.7) lattice parameter: unit cell x–y interaxial angle (3.7) shear strain (6.2) precedes the symbol of a parameter to denote finite change engineering strain (6.2) dielectric permittivity (18.18) r dielectric constant or relative permittivity (18.18) s steady-state creep rate (8.12) T true strain (6.7) viscosity (12.10) overvoltage (17.4) Bragg diffraction angle (3.16) D Debye temperature (19.2) wavelength of electromagnetic radiation (3.16) SUBSCRIPTS c composite cd discontinuous fibrous composite cl longitudinal direction (aligned fibrous composite) ct transverse direction (aligned fibrous composite) f final f at fracture f fiber i instantaneous m matrix m, max maximum min minimum 0 original 0 at equilibrium 0 in a vacuum container.

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