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By J. Sandy

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8d Strip crowns were placed on the incisors once the overbite was reduced Fig. 9a, b A case with severe upper arch crowding. The upper permanent canines were unerupted, buccally positioned and very short of space ➠ Fig. 9c An upper removable space maintainer. Adam cribs have been placed on the first permanent molars and a Southend clasp on the upper central incisors Fig. 9d,e The first premolars have been extracted and the upper canines are erupting into a good position 14 BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL VOLUME 196 NO.

Part 4: Treatment planning D. Roberts-Harry1 and J. Sandy2 The treatment plan is an integral part of orthodontic management. ). The treatment aims will include, for example overjet reduction. The plan will consider how to create space in order to accomplish this as well as the appliance system that will be used. ORTHODONTICS 1. Who needs orthodontics? 2. Patient assessment and examination I 3. Patient assessment and examination II 4. Treatment planning 5. Appliance choices 6. Risks in orthodontic treatment 7.

Familial risk is also known. A wide range in the degree of resorption is seen, highlighting the role of individual susceptibility over and above the risk factors identified. Research is still required in this area to identify the mechanisms of resportion, trigger factors and reparative mechanisms if treatment modalities are to be modified in the future to minimise root damage. Currently, no case is immune from the risk of root resorption, to some degree, and patients should be warned at the outset of treatment that such a risk exists.

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