By John C. Kricher
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Extra info for A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests
Thus, this apex is rather exiguous and only develops later. 4 Embryogeny of Equisetales Unfortunately, among Articulateae, only the genus Equisetum with an exoscopic embryo can be found in nature presently. In Equisetum arvense, studied by SADEBECK (1878), the first cleavage, perpendicular to the axis of the archegonium, oblique according to LAROCHE (1968), produces on the canal side a cell which will produce the stem and on the bottom side a cell which will produce the foot and the first root (Fig.
A First cleavage, perpendicular to the axis of the archegonium; b, b' formation of four cells at the lower pole; c two-octant state; d beginning of foot growth between the suspensor sp and the cleavage No. IV; e more advanced proembryo showing the hypertrophic extension of the foot fwith respect to the apex a; f apical face of the embryo with distended primordia on the foot surface; h cotyledon leaves; 12 first epicotylleaf; rradicle; g development of the vegetative axis, yet subterranean, and of the first root rJ; F foot; r2 second root; sl underground scaly leaves; a-e x 150; f x 52; g x 10 (after BRUCHMANN 1898) 21 Fig.
4 a, b. Plastid evolution in the Ginkgo oosphere. a Completion of a crista ld: double lamella, proceeding from the inner membrane, and dividing the plastidal stroma into two compartments. At the upper part of the figure, the outer membrane has tom apart and this zone is now only limited by the inner membrane (ms single membrane); sf fundamental substance (stroma); cyf cytoplasm; dm plastid double membrane; a starch; x 15000. b Separation of the two parts of a plastid, after the breaking of the outer membrane; the arrow indicates a persistent site of this membrane, maintaining the contact between the two parts of the plastid; x 19000.