By Noam Lazebnik
Imaging of the fetus is the most typical ultrasound examine played. whereas such a lot reports show little greater than a fit fetus, the facility to spot anomalies on the topic of the advance of the fetal mind and musculoskeletal method is essential. incorporated during this factor are articles at the use of ultrasound to diagnose cystic mind lots, neural migration anomalies, and abnormalities of the skull, backbone, thorax, and top and decrease extremities. the power to discover those difficulties early may have a good effect at the process the being pregnant, in the course of supply, and postpartum.
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Additional info for Advanced Obstetrical Ultrasound: Fetal Brain, Spine, and Limb Abnormalities, An Issue of Ultrasound Clinics
7. Riccabona M, Johnson D, Pretorius DH, et al. Three dimensional ultrasound: display modalities in the fetal spine and thorax. Eur J Radiol 1996;22:141–5. 8. Johnson DD, Pretorius DH, Riccabona M, et al. Three-dimensional ultrasound of the fetal spine. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:434–8. 9. Schild RL, Wallny T, Fimmers R, et al. Fetal lumbar spine volumetry by three-dimensional ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1999;13:335–9. 10. Ulm MR, Kratochwil A, Oberhuemer U, et al. Ultrasound evaluation of fetal spine length between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation.
MIGRATION DISORDERS Migration disorder can result in structurally abnormal or missing areas of the brain in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, or hippocampus. Disorders of neuronal migration, in order of increasing severity, include focal cerebrocortical dysgenesis, heterotopia, polymicrogyria, lissencephaly or pachygyria, and schizencephaly. 2 The causes of disorders of migration are varied and include environmental toxic conditions or genetic metabolic disorders. Detection of polymicrogyria as early as 24 weeks has been reported4 but more commonly prenatal sonographic suspicions for migration disorder arise during the third trimester.
As discussed previously, the power angiography mode can be used in selected cases to obtain a volume imaging of various main vessels in the brain. The authors are interested mainly in the course of the pericallosal branch of the anterior cerebral artery. In cases of space-occupying lesions, the anatomy of the vessels may be of use in determining the size and extent of the lesion. In cases of brain tumor, its vascularity helps to evaluate the nature of the lesion. Using 2D US to obtain the ‘‘perfect’’ median (midsagittal) plane requires experience in transvaginal brain scan and at times may not be obtained because of unfavorable fetal position or presentation.