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By Valerie Coulter

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The nature of aromatic substituent also affects the basicity of aromatic amines. g. NO2, Cl or CN) lower electron density in the ring, which means that the ring will have an electron-withdrawing effect on the neighbouring ammonium ion. Because of this the charge will be destabilised and the amine will be a weaker base. Substituents that activate the aromatic ring enhance electron density in the ring and the ring will have an electron-donating effect on the neighbouring charge. This has a stabilising effect and so the amine will be a stronger base.

The inversion involves a change of hybridisation where the nitrogen becomes sp 2 hybridised rather than sp3 hybridised. Because of this, the molecule becomes planar and the lone pair of electrons occupy a p orbital. Once the hybridisation reverts back to sp3, the molecule can either revert back to its original shape or invert. Although the enantiomers of chiral amines cannot be separated, such amines can be alkylated to form quaternary ammonium salts where the enantiomers can be separated. Once the lone pair of electrons is locked up in a σ bond, pyramidal inversion becomes impossible and the enantiomers can no longer interconvert.

V) Name the structure by first identifying the substituent and its position in the chain, then naming the longest chain. The structure in above fig is called 2-methylpentane. Notice that the substituent and the main chain is one complete word, that is, 2-methylpentane rather than 2-methly pentane. Multi-Branched Alkanes In case there is more than one alkyl substituent present in the structure then the substituents are named in alphabetical order, numbering again from the end of the chain nearest the substituents.

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