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By O. Lowenstein

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They report that Hall and Evans have shown and studied echolocation in Orcinus orca. b. Anatomical Investigations. Studies of auditory anatomy, relying largely on material obtained from commercial whaling expeditions and specimens stranded on coasts, was initially the most extensive form of HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING IN MAMMALS 45 research on cetacean hearing. The work of Fräser and Purves (1954, 1960a,b) led to the conclusion that the presence of albuminous foam in large cavities around the tympanic bulla caused the acoustic isolation of the latter, thus allowing normal "mammalian-type" hearing to occur underwater.

Sounds Produced by Cetacea Cetaceans produce many sounds that may serve for communication, and several members of the Odontoceti have been shown to echolocate. Therefore, as with bats, a brief consideration of the sounds produced by the animals is a necessary prelude to a discussion of their hearing. The humpback whale, the most studied of the Mysticeti, has been shown to produce a variety of sounds, some of which may be ultrasonic (Payne, 1970; Payne and McVay, 1971), though there is no evidence that these are used for echolocation.

Sewell (1970b) also gave the first positive demonstration of ultrasound as a means of communication in Apodemus sylvaticus, and this has now been confirmed for albino rats (Allin and Banks 1972) and for Peromyscus maniculatus (Smith, 1972). Ultrasounds between frequencies of 17 and 44 kHz have been reported from both adult and young lemmings, Dicrostonyx groenlandicus by Brooks and Banks (1973). The effect of environmental temperature and tactile stimuli on ultra­ sound production in the young of five species of myomorph rodent has been investigated by Okon (1970a,b, 1971a,b, 1972).

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