By Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz
This publication has been built from a workshop on Technological swap in agriculture and tropical deforestation equipped through the heart for overseas Forestry examine and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture impacts tropical deforestation utilizing case stories from assorted nation-states, utilizing various agricultural items and applied sciences and in differing demographic occasions and marketplace stipulations. counsel is additionally given on destiny agricultural learn and extension efforts.
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The commodity booms discussed in this book by Wunder (Chapter 10) and Ruf (Chapter 16) provide good examples of such situations. 2. Endogenous prices The second main macroeconomic feedback mechanism operates via price changes. These include both output and input prices (including wages, although the previous section indirectly dealt with wage changes). If innovations substantially increase the supply of agricultural output (and possibly greatly increase the demand for labour), output prices may go down while wages and other input prices may rise.
Particularly damaging floods occurred in the 1830s and again in the 1850s, and the Swiss Forestry Society helped convince authorities that forest problems were partially responsible for the floods. In response to a petition from the society’s president, Elias Landolt, in 1856, the federal government commissioned a major survey of forest condition under Landolt’s supervision. The report concluded that forests were being depleted and that deforestation had made river discharge more irregular and increased the risk of avalanches and falling rocks (Landolt, 1862).
4 Some people use the term 'land-intensive' interchangeably with 'land-saving' or 'yield-increasing'. It is, however, by no means self-evident whether land-intensive means that farmers use a lot of land per unit of labour and capital (also referred to in the literature as extensive land use) or the opposite. 5 One could argue that agricultural intensification should be defined in terms of output per unit of the scarce factor. Since labour is often the scarce factor at the forest frontier, a third option would be to divide through by labour in equation (1), and focus on labour productivity (output per worker) and the land and capital requirements per worker.