By Prof. L. Brandsma, Prof. H. D. Verkruijsse, Prof. S. F. Vasilevsky (auth.)
Homogeneous catalysis is a vital approach for the synthesis of high-valued chemical compounds. L. Brandsma has rigorously chosen and checked the experimental systems illustrating the catalytic use of copper, nickel, and palladium compounds in natural synthesis. All strategies are on a preparative scale, make financial use of solvents and catalysts, stay away from poisonous components and feature excessive yields.
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Distillation at <2 mmHg is possible. 28 (m, IH) ppm. 6 1-Methyl-2-tributylstannylpyrrole n-BuLi-TMEDA --h-e-xa-n-e----l..... 10 molar. 4 g) of freshly distilled 1-methylpyrrole. The mixture was heated under gentle reflux for 15 min and subsequently allowed to cool to room temperature. THF (SO ml) was then added at 20°C to the suspension, whereupon the solution was cooled to -90°C. 6 g) was added in one portion, after which the temperature was allowed to rise to 0 0C. After hydrolysis and drying the organic layer over anhydrous MgS04' the solvent was removed in vacuo.
Verkruijsse, Synth. Comm. ) Anhydrous liquid ammonia (see Note 1) (-500 ml) was introduced from a cylinder into the first flask. 6 g) of sodium was introduced in two pieces with vigorous stirring and introduction of air (or oxygen from a cylinder, see Note 2) during 1 minute. Ferric nitrate (n H 2 0) (-250 mg) was then introduced. When after a short time the blue colour had changed into grey, the remaining sodium was quickly introduced in -1 g portions. As a rule, the conversion into sodamide is complete within half an hour.
The temperature of the solution rose gradually and after 20 to 30 min the ether began to reflux. 5 h, the solution was cooled to -50°C. 50 mol (127 g) of finely powdered iodine in 300 ml of diethyl ether was added portionwise through the powder-funnel. During this addition, which occurred over 30 min, the mixture was vigorously stirred, while its temperature was kept below -10°C. 2 Aryl and Hetaryl Halides ring. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate and subsequent1y concentrated under reduced pressure.