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Archaeological artifacts became a traded commodity largely as the international achieve of Western society permits quick access to the world's archaeological historical past. received via the world's prime museums and personal creditors, antiquities were faraway from archaeological websites, monuments, or cultural associations and illegally traded. This choice of essays by way of world-recognized specialists investigates the ways in which com-modifying artifacts fuels the destruction of archaeological background and considers what should be performed to guard it. regardless of starting to be nationwide and overseas laws to guard cultural background, expanding numbers of archaeological sites-among them, war-torn Afghanistan and Iraq-are topic to pillage because the financial worth of artifacts rises. delivering accomplished examinations of archaeological website looting, the antiquities alternate, the destroy of cultural background assets, and the foreign efforts to wrestle their destruction, the authors argue that the antiquities industry affects cultural history around the globe and is a burgeoning international main issue.

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5 million in the case of the Lydian Hoard, is a powerful deterrent to the acquisition of unprovenanced material. S. criminal courts (see also Gerstenblith 2002), and so the force of the art museums’ argument has been lessened. In 2004 the Association of Art Museum Directors published its Report of the AAMD Task Force on the Acquisition of Archaeological Materials and Ancient Art, which contains seven guidelines to assist museums in the preparation or revision of acquisition policies (AAMD 2004).

Sadly, until 1990, Iraq had had an excellent record of care for this cultural heritage: it had good legislation dating from 1936 and competent professionals in its museums, and it had controlled the looting of sites. A few years of con­­flict, really the blink of an eye in the long history of the country, has lost to humanity critical information about our early development. The impunity with which looted objects of Iraqi origin have been traded in art markets since 1991 has outraged archaeologists.

This Protocol also specifically prohibits archaeological excavations in occupied territory, “save where this is strictly required to safeguard, record or preserve cultural property” and “in close co-operation with the competent national authorities of the occupied territory” (Article 9). Twenty States Parties were needed to bring the Second Protocol into force, and in January 2004 Costa Rica became the twentieth State. The Protocol then came into force in April 2004. There are currently thirty-seven States Parties.

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