By Cicero S. Vaucher
Frequency synthesizers are an important development block of RF verbal exchange items. they are often present in conventional buyer items, in own conversation platforms, and in optical conversation gear. given that frequency synthesizers are utilized in many alternative functions, diverse functionality points might have to be thought of in every one case. the most physique of the textual content describes a conceptual framework for studying the functionality of PLL frequency synthesizers, and offers optimization tactics for the several functionality facets. The research of the PLL houses is played with using the open-loop bandwidth and section margin strategies, to permit the impact of higher-order poles to be taken under consideration from the start of the layout strategy. The theoretical method research is complemented by way of descriptions of cutting edge approach and development block architectures, by means of circuit implementations in bipolar and CMOS applied sciences, and through size effects. Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers comprises uncomplicated info for the newbie in addition to in-depth wisdom for the skilled clothier. it truly is greatly illustrated with functional layout examples utilized in business products.
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Additional info for Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers
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From an economical point-of-view, however, it is sometimes justifiable to choose for an architecture which relies on (a few) external components. 8 INTERFERENCE GENERATION A possible source of interferences, or spurious signals, is unwanted radiation and coupling of the oscillator signal to sensitive parts of the receiver. Another possibility for spurious generation is activity of logical circuits which produce spike-like noise on the supply and on the substrate. The power spectrum of supply lines may contain frequency components well into the GHz range, for typical digital circuits running on clock frequencies of a few MHz .
L. Rohde, RF and Microwave Digital Frequency Synthesizers, Wiley, New York, 1997. L. , “The Heterodyne Receiving System, and Notes on the Recent Arlington-Salem Tests,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 1, pp. 75– 102, July 1913, Reprinted in Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 87, no. 11, Nov. 1999.  E. Armstrong, “The super-heterodyne - its origin, development, and some recent improvements,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 12, pp. 539–552, Oct. 1924.  B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Prentice Hall, New York, 1998.