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By Abito Ito; Kokusai Kyōiku Jōhō Sentā

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Additional resources for Aspects of Japanese culture and society : an anthropologist's view / [written and prepared by Ito Abito]

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Similarly, in the management of systems and organizations, it is considered better wherever possible to rely on precedent, and people try so far as possible to avoid making exceptions or in other ways stepping outside the framework of the system. Even in situations where it is impossible to handle things by precedent, less attention is paid to the claims of a consistency founded in some basic principle than to the particular circumstances of each case, experience being valued at the expense of logical interpretation.

In the latter, school education system was promoted chiefly as one aspect of national administration whereby pupils were gathered in independent buildings, devoted exclusively to education, known as schools. It was carried out separately from the business of everyday life, and the sites chosen for the schools were similarly removed from the centers of civic life in traditional local societies, or were, for example, within the grounds of the castles, which were formerly the centers of ruling authority.

Spots and historical sites all have something of the aspect of a pilgrimage. A condition of the journey is that some "hero" should have been there first and thus created a prototype, ordinary humans simply repeating and reexperiencing the journey that he first created. Commercial Dealings and Trust The bases of commerce in the traditional towns of Japan were dealings rooted in mutual trust. Merchant houses were family businesses that went on regardless of generational changes, so that ‹ just as techniques and know-how were inherited by successive generations within the ie ‹ the thing most sought after in relationships with regular customers was the stability given by consumer confidence in the quality of its products.

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