By John Leslie Dowe
Australian arms deals an up-to-date and thorough systematic and taxonomic remedy of the Australian palm vegetation, protecting 60 species in 21 genera. of those, fifty four species happen in continental Australia and 6 species at the off-shore territories of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and xmas Island. Incorporating fresh advances in biogeographic and phylogenetic examine, Australian arms presents a complete advent to the palm family members Arecaceae, with experiences of botanical heritage, biogeography, phylogeny, ecology and conservation. Thorough descriptions of genera and species comprise notes on ecology and typification, and keys and distribution maps help with box reputation. colour images of behavior, leaf, plant life, fruit and designated diagnostic characters additionally function for every species. This paintings is the end result of over twenty years of analysis into Australian arms, together with large field-work and exam of herbarium specimens in Australia, South-East Asia, Europe and the united states.
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Extra info for Australian Palms: Biogeography, Ecology and Systematics
Ramsayi, or open forest species such as C. utan, clearly establish the basic structure and ecological character of the particular vegetation type. indd 32 1/12/09 9:45:34 AM 4 – Distribution and ecology N PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS IN AUSTRALIA 1 species 2– 4 species 5–8 species 9–21 species Phytogeographical regions have been defined in various ways in Australia (Hooker 1859; Burbidge 1960; Barlow 1981; Crisp et al. 1999) based on climatic parameters, species endemism, distribution of shared/ non-shared taxa within discrete areas, and regional and global relationships.
Some of the above-listed species, such as Calamus aruensis, C. warburgii and Hydriastele costata (Fig. 12), are among the most abundant palm species in New Guinea and appear highly vagile as well as adaptable to different types of habitats. The ﬁrst two have relatively small populations in Australia, suggesting limited introduction. N SUMMARY The historical events that have inﬂuenced the distribution of palms in Australia and New Zealand and associated terranes can be summarised as follows: L Cretaceous Gondwana break-up with subsequent continental drift and the isolation and rafting of the Australian Plate; L Palaeocene Tasman rifting; L Eocene formation of proto-New Guinea; L Oligocene to Miocene volcanism and island creation associated with the Lord Howe Rise; L Miocene contact of the Australian Plate with other terranes (Wallace’s Line); L Miocene to Pliocene mountain-building in New Guinea; L Pliocene to Pleistocene aridity, central and southern Australia; L Holocene marine transgression of Torres Strait.
G. Capricornia Basin, Queensland), where they persisted to at least the Early Miocene (Hekel 1972; Macphail et al. 1994). By the end of the Miocene, there is considerable concordance between fossil records and the extant distribution of Nypa (Baker et al. 1998). The present distribution of Nypa in Australia is restricted and disjunct, conﬁned to northern Queensland and the Cobourg Peninsula and Melville Island of the Northern Territory (Covacevich 1981; Duke 2006), although it is widespread and common along the coasts of New Guinea and north through south-east Asia to Sri Lanka and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.