By Herbert N. Foerstel
From colonial occasions to the current, the media in the US has been topic to censorship demanding situations and laws. This accomplished reference advisor to media censorship offers in-depth assurance of every media format―newspapers, magazines, films, radio, tv, and the Internet―all of that have been, and remain, battlegrounds for First modification concerns. each one media structure is tested in-depth, from its origins and background via its glossy improvement, and contours dialogue of landmark incidents and instances. Foerstel, writer of Banned within the U.S.A., the acclaimed reference consultant to ebook censorship in colleges and public libraries, deals a short background of media censorship, examines in-depth the drama of 7 landmark incidents, and comprises 31 correct complaints. Complementing the quantity are own interviews with famous sufferers of media censorship, who supply human voice to the fight of the media to stay loose, and an exam of censorship of the coed press.
Fascinating examples of media censorship abound, from Peter Zenger's prerevolutionary trial for seditious libel to the trendy tobacco industry's invocation of tortious interference to silence tv information and the present rash of web censorship incidents. bankruptcy 1 bargains a quick heritage of censorship of every of the media varieties. bankruptcy 2 gains indepth research of 7 landmark media censorship incidents: the trial of John Peter Zenger, H. L. Mencken and the hatrack case, John Henry Faulk and the radio blacklist, revolutionary magazine's expos^D'e at the H-bomb mystery, govt labeling of 3 documentary motion pictures as political propaganda, television's tobacco wars, and Carnegie Mellon's try and censor scholars' entry to the net. bankruptcy three examines 31 media censorship complaints from 1735 to 1997. bankruptcy four positive aspects unique interviews with media figures fascinated by censorship concerns or cases―Paul Jarrico, Howard Morland, Peter Sussman, Daniel Schorr, Walter Cronkite, and Jerry Berman. Appendix A takes a glance at censorship and reaction in regards to the scholar press in the course of the Nineties, after the landmark Hazelwood selection in 1988―an very important subject for college students in each highschool. Appendix B features a source record of media advocacy and censorship firms. a specific bibliography of books and digital assets completes the textual content. This quantity is of curiosity to highschool and faculty scholars, lecturers, librarians and students, and all those people who are tormented by those an important First modification issues.
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Additional resources for Banned in the Media: A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet
66 In June 1997, in return for a congressional promise to withdraw all punitive legislation under consideration, several broadcast and cable networks agreed to consider adding the rating symbols ‘‘S’’ for sex, ‘‘V’’ for violence, and ‘‘L’’ for language to their existing age-based ratings. ’’67 Opponents of the proposed ratings pointed out that accepting a deal with Congress would only encourage politicians to demand more censorship. ‘‘We are not inclined to make yet another deal that no one in [Congress] feels obligated to live up to,’’ said one broadcaster, re- 40 • Banned in the Media ferring to past promises to leave television alone if it accepted the Vchip and age-based ratings.
Goodson’s first major television production, What’s My Line? included poet Louis Untermeyer as a celebrity panelist. ’’ Apparently, he had permitted his name to be affiliated with the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee and had been a sponsor of the 1948 May Day parade. Goodson and Untermeyer were summoned to the office of Ralph Cohn, the principal CBS attorney at the time, where Cohn admonished Untermeyer for being naive about the communist threat. Untermeyer was promptly fired. Indeed, he was the last of the blacklisted performers to even be informed of the reason for their being fired.
These codes were to be used by the television networks and syndi- A Brief History of Media Censorship • 39 cators to assign ratings to their own shows. On January 1, 1997, the codes began appearing in the upper left-hand corner of the screen at the beginning of most network and cable entertainment shows. ‘‘I’m seriously concerned about the effect on creativity,’’ said Jeffrey Cole, director of UCLA’s Center for Communication Policy. ’’65 The political pressure on television soon worsened, as demands emerged for an even more intrusive rating system, one based directly on the content of programming rather than on the recommended age of viewers.