By F. Lieutier (auth.), François Lieutier, Keith R. Day, Andrea Battisti, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Hugh F. Evans (eds.)
For the 1st time, a synthesis at the study paintings performed in Europe on all Bark And wooden dull bugs In residing bushes (BAWBILT) is gifted. As ultimate fabricated from a four-year learn undertaking accumulating jointly a hundred scientists from 24 international locations, the ebook is the fruit of a true collective synthesis during which all eu experts have participated. It experiences and reviews on the entire ecu literature, whereas contemplating the organic (trees, bugs, linked organisms, and their relationships) and wooded area administration facets. notwithstanding, even supposing desirous about the ecu woodland, it additionally compares the to be had info and interpretations to these touching on comparable species in different continents. It ends with propositions of analysis priorities for Europe. The publication is directed to all scientists and scholars serious about woodland entomology and ecology, in addition to to wooded area managers and all clinical public drawn to woodland biology.
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CONCLUSIONS Overall the information in the BAWBILT database has provided useful summaries of the range of control measures employed by the member countries. The range of measures has, predictably, been linked to the degree of severity of the damage caused by the listed pests. It was not, however, possible to carry out cost-benefit analyses of the various control measures carried out or even to assess the relative efficacy of those measures. This indicates that improved quantification of the cost and effectiveness of pest management for BAWBILT organisms could be a priority for the future.
Slovakia Volume (m³) Period Country Threatened Area (ha) Table 10. 8. Rhyacionia buoliana Four countries provided quantitative information on this species. Significant damage was reported on young pines in Hungary (17,300 ha) and in Romania (2,500 ha: Table 11). Slovakia 100000 1990-99 Romania 10,000 1991-2000 Area (ha) Period Country Threatened Area (ha) Table 11. C. F. 9. Scolytus laevis A total of 1,500 ha was reported to be potentially threatened by this species in Slovakia, but no quantitative information on damage is available.
Sexual dimorphism Nearly all Scolytidae and Platypodidae are sexually dimorphic to some degree. g. Hylesinus, Trypodendron), the elytral declivity (some Crypturgus species), or both ((Ips, Pityokteines, Phloeosinus), the abdominal ventrites (Scolytus), and the presence of mycangia (Scolytoplatypus). Various combinations of these and other characters may also be involved. Many scolytids and platypodids can stridulate producing sounds which are used in interindividual interactions. Three types of stridulatory systems of the file-plectrum type are found in the Scolytidae, and one in the Platypodidae, nearly always less well developed (or absent) in the female than in the male (Lyal and King 1996).