Download Basic Statistics: For medical and social science students by A. E. Maxwell (auth.) PDF

By A. E. Maxwell (auth.)

For a long time now i've been required to offer a chain of trouble-free lectures on facts to scientific scholars approximately to adopt a postgraduate direction in psychiatry. The declared goal of the direction, for which very restricted time was once to be had, was once to supply the scholars with a few preliminary knowing of the statistical terminology and hassle-free ideas to which different academics, specifically psychologists and sociologists, will be more likely to refer during their lectures. the duty was once difficult for 2 purposes. within the first position lots of the scholars concerned, regardless of their most sensible intentions, had forgotten their university arithmetic, and secondly no textbook existed on the correct point of trouble which contained examples applicable to those scholars' wishes and event. the current booklet used to be written to fill the distance. although pri­ marily meant for psychiatrists, the publication may still turn out very helpful to any scholar of the behavioural sciences who wishes an easy introductory direction at the rules of experimental layout and information research. It needs to be one of many least difficult textual content­ books on effortless records ever written. i'm indebted to the literary executor of the past due Sir Ronald A. Fisher, F.R.S., to Dr Frank Yates, F.R.S., and to Oliver & Boyd Ltd for permission to reprint Tables three and five from their booklet Statistical Tables for organic, Agricultural and scientific Research.

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For instance, if part of the selection process for university students is a battery of standardized intelligence tests, then a possible criterion might be the grades obtained by the students in their degree examinations. Again the validity of a scale for measuring a variable such as 'depression' might be checked by correlating patients' scores on the scale with ratings of depr:ession given to them by experienced consultants. Reliability and validity are not independent concepts, for if a measuring instrument is unreliable this is likely to affect adversely an index of its validity.

Sometimes the 48 Some Simple Descriptive Statistics class is finite and numerable, such as the number of males on any given week receiving old-age pensions in the Isle of Man; but more often it is hypothetical. For instance, when we speak of the class of patients diagnosed as 'catatonic schizophrenics', we generally have in mind patients past, present and future suffering from this illness. Now when we come to measure people belonging to some population on a given variable, it is usually impossible to measure all of them; we have to be content with a sample.

Having disposed of them we see that if, for some variable X, JL and u are known, then the value of Y for any given value of X can immediately be calculated. In other words, the only constants, apart from 7T and e, in the equation are JL and u, and if, for a given variable X, JL and u are known (or, what in practice amounts to the same thing, if good estimates X and s of JL and u are known), then the normal curve is completely determined. This means that if a variable X is normally, or near normally, distributed in some population, an adequate description of a 50 Some Simple Descriptive Statistics sample of data drawn from that population is provided if we state the mean and the standard deviation.

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