By Donald A. Berry, Dalene Stangl
This paintings presents descriptions, causes and examples of the Bayesian method of information, demonstrating the application of Bayesian equipment for reading real-world difficulties within the overall healthiness sciences. The paintings considers the person parts of Bayesian analysis.;College or collage bookstores may well order 5 or extra copies at a distinct scholar fee, to be had on request from Marcel Dekker, Inc.
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The hazard identiﬁcation and dose-response assessment steps are generally regarded as descriptive of the properties of a toxic agent. For example, health agencies may identify a hazard by describing a chemical agent as ‘‘carcinogenic to humans’’ or ‘‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’’. They may also estimate a doseresponse curve for each agent (US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 2003a). These steps are generally performed centrally, as toxic properties and doseresponse curves are not thought of as varying from one location to another.
Another approach in common use is to scale doses from animals to humans on the basis of equivalence of mg/kg3/4 per day (US EPA, 1992b). This formula is supported by analyses of the allometric variation of key physiological parameters across mammalian species. Allometric scaling may be more appropriate for some toxic endpoints than for others. Other approaches that equate exposure concentrations in food or water are alternative versions of the same approach, because daily intakes of food or water are approximately proportional to the 3=4 power of body weight.
For example, workers can be exposed to intense but intermittent exposures during the workday. Experimental animals can receive a daily dose by gavage (that is, via a tube inserted through the mouth to the forestomach), or they can receive intermittent doses throughout the day via their food or drinking water. Doses also can vary from one time to another, or there can be brief or prolonged periods between times that exposure occurs. The resulting internal dose depends on many variables, including exposure concentration, duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, and duration of recovery periods between exposures.