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Except in zones of liquefaction (z), the majority of the fibers are reflected toward the cathode ( - ) side of the field. From Marsh & Beams (1946). INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL EMBRYOLOGY 23 the anode side of the field (shown in Fig. 2). The effective orienting current densities were 50,000 times greater than that reported by Ingvar. In this connection, it is important to note that chick embryo spinal ganglion expiants growing in culture do exhibit resting potentials as well as evoked action potentials (Crain, 1956), and spinal cord muscle cell preparations also show spontaneous as well as evoked neural potentials (Fischbach, 1970; Kano & Shimada, 1971).

Bird embryos are capable of tactile (Gos, 1935) as well as auditory conditioning (Gos, 1935; Hunt, 1949; Sedlâcek, 1964), and human fetuses show some evidence of conditioning in utero (Spelt, 1948). INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL EMBRYOLOGY 35 While it is always somewhat difficult to demonstrate the relevance of prenatal conditioning studies to events which occur during the usual course of embryonic development in a given species, the results of such studies certainly indicate (/) the capacity of the embryo's nervous system to react in an adaptive fashion to changes or contingencies in its immediate environment, (2) the early functional development of perception, and, in some cases, (3) the influence of embryonic experience on behavior in adulthood.

Whether axons and dendrites respond differently to the flow of current is not known. e. preneural or nonneural) conduction (Mackie, 1970) and the electrical coupling of cells (Sheridan, 1968) in early embryonic stages suggests that the electrical field hypothesis, or some variant of it, is worthy of further investigation. ) determine the later highly specific functional interconnection of these cells in the mature neural network. 2. CONTACT GUIDANCE HYPOTHESIS Early in the history of tissue culture work, it was noted that cells did not grow or migrate unless they made contact with a solid body, such as the coverslip, the fibrin net, fibers immersed in fluid, or the surface film of the culture medium (Harrison, 1914).

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