By Homer Alfred Neal, Tobin Smith, Jennifer McCormick
Technological know-how and know-how are answerable for nearly each improve in our smooth caliber of lifestyles. but technological know-how is not only approximately laboratories, telescopes and particle accelerators. Public coverage exerts a huge effect on how the clinical group conducts its paintings. past Sputnik is a accomplished survey of the sphere to be used as an introductory textbook in classes and a reference advisor for legislators, scientists, newshounds, and advocates trying to comprehend the technological know-how policy-making approach. designated case studies---on themes from cloning and stem cellphone learn to native land safety and technology education---offer readers the chance to review actual circumstances of policymaking at paintings. Authors and specialists Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick suggest useful how you can enforce sound public coverage in technological know-how and expertise and spotlight how those rules will consultant the result of medical discovery for years to come.Homer A. Neal is the Samuel A. Goudsmit special collage Professor of Physics, intervening time President Emeritus, and vp for study Emeritus on the college of Michigan, and is a former member of the U.S. nationwide technology Board.Tobin L. Smith is affiliate vp for Federal kin on the organization of yank Universities. He used to be previously Assistant Director of the college of Michigan and MIT Washington, DC, offices.Jennifer B. McCormick is an Assistant Professor of Biomedical Ethics within the department of normal inner medication on the Mayo collage of medication in Rochester, Minnesota, and is the affiliate Director of the examine Ethics source, a part of the Mayo Clinic's NIH medical Translational technology Award learn programs.GO past SPUTNIK ONLINE--Visit www.science-policy.net for the newest information, instructing assets, studying courses, and internship possibilities within the 21st-Century box of technological know-how policy."Beyond Sputnik is a readable, concise, but remarkably finished creation to modern technological know-how coverage. it's without 'wonkishness' but serves the desires of policymakers and scholars alike. simply because technology and know-how coverage is of vital value within the twenty-first century this available quantity is a godsend."---Charles M. Vest, President of the nationwide Academy of Engineering and Vice Chair of the nationwide study Council of the nationwide Academies of Sciences and Engineering"This hugely researched booklet is a treasure trove for an individual considering technological know-how coverage when it comes to such demanding situations as supplying power, retaining the surroundings, assuring healthcare, developing jobs, and more."---Norman Augustine, retired Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin company and recipient of the 2008 Vannevar Bush Award from the nationwide technology Board"Science coverage is a topic of transforming into value within the usa, but there has lengthy been a vacuum between textbooks within the box. past Sputnik fills it wonderfully and should be greeted with enthusiasm by way of scholars and college alike. Even those that have practiced the artwork for years will research from it."---Albert Teich, Director of technology and coverage courses on the American organization for the development of Science"Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick have written a landmark paintings calling for a countrywide attempt to revive our nation's energy within the fields of technology, strength, and schooling, as we did within the awesome 12 months following Sputnik. the following preident may still learn past Sputnik and settle for this name to motion as did President Eisenhower."---Ambassador David M. Abshire, President of the heart for the research of the Presidency, Cofounder and vice president of the heart for Strategic and overseas reports, and President of the Richard Lounsbery Foundation"At final now we have a textual content that tells the tale from the place A. Hunter Dupree left off; a good center textual content for classes in technological know-how and know-how coverage, DC policymakers, and an individual who must wake up to hurry within the box . . . The booklet that we've got all been ready for."---Christopher T. Hill, Professor of Public coverage and know-how, George Mason college
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4. Bush, Science-the Endless Frontier, appendix 2, " Re port of the Medical Advisory Committee. " See also Pauline Maier, Merritt Roe Smith, Alexander Keyssar, and Daniel J. Kevles, Inventing America: A History of the United States, vol. 2 (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003 ) , 826-2 8 . 5 . The differences between Bush and Kilgore are detailed in Daniel J. Kevles, " The National Science Foundation and the Debate over Postwar Research Policy: 1 942-1 945: A Political Interpretation of Science-the Endless Frontier, " Isis 6 8 , no.
John R. S. Government Printing Of fice, 1 94 9 ) . 1 9 . The significant role already assumed for research by other agencies is illustrated by the fact that by 1 955 almost 80 percent of the federal government's expenditure on R&D was devoted to the Department of Defense, 10 percent to the Atomic Energy Commission, and 6 . 6 percent to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (of which the National Insti tutes of Health was a part ) . By this time, the National Science Foundation's share was only 0 .
The director may also reorganize the office more broadly, including changing the number and focus of the assistant directors, whose positions are not dictated by law. 21 The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Tech nology (PCAST) was created by President George H. W. Bush via a 1 990 executive order, to provide " critical links to industry and academia. "22 PCAST serves as the high est-level science advisory group to the president that is not composed of federal government officials.