By Prof. Dr. Takayoshi Higuchi (auth.)
Progress in wooden chemistry has been similar often to chemical wooden pulping and bleaching and chemical usage of wooden and wooden extractives. Meth ods of wooden research have been built by way of Schorger (proximate research in 1917) and Dore (summative research in 1919), and traditional equipment in keeping with Schorger's process, e.g., TAPPI criteria (Technical organization of the Pulp and Paper Industry), were widespread for chemical research of woods in lots of international locations. hence it truly is usually identified that wooden consists of approximately 50% cellulose, 20-35% of lignin, 15-25% of hemicelluloses, and variable quantities of extractives. Chemical characterization and effective usage of those wooden elements were studied in laboratories of wooden chemistry and expertise in universities and govt associations. within the final decade, biochemistry and molecular biology of microorganisms, animals, and vegetation have tremendously stepped forward. whilst wooden has been famous as a special renewable ecomaterial produced via timber utilizing solar power. moreover, many fascinating homes of wooden and wooden elements as biomaterial that is affecting body structure and psychology in people have lately attracted attention.
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A part of the light-harvesting chlorophyll is linked to the reaction center protein, but most of it is present as a chlorophyll-protein complex (LHCP), which efficiently catches photons and transfers them to P700. PS II contains as a reaction center a chlorophyll-protein complex (P680) which has an absorption maximum at 680nm, chlorophyll a and b as light-harvesting chlorophyll, and associated carotenoids. As in PS I, photons collected by the light-harvesting chlorophyll are finally transferred to P680 (Fig.
22. Electron micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes attached to cisternae (section parallel to cisternae) can be seen. Many ribosomes are arranged to form polysomes (arrowheads). Am Amyloplast; PM plasma membrane; CW cell wall. (Courtesy of K. Sano) plates were formed. They suggested that the ER contains an enzyme system catalyzing the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and their precursors. Variously shaped ER were observed along cell walls, especially in cells forming the S2layer, and several ER were connected to neighboring cells to penetrate cell membranes.
In all cases, the properties of the plant enzyme are similar to those of other organisms. The amino acid sequence for tobacco leaf cytoplasmic NAD+ - glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase has been derived from the nucleotide sequence of a cloned cDNA. This sequence has a higher homogeny with Escherichia coli or animal enzymes (Miernyk 1990). 3) is a key enzyme in the generation of A TP during glycolysis. The enzyme has been purified and characterized from various plants. The catalytic and physicochemical properties of phosphoglycerate kinase from plant and cyanobacterial sources are very similar to those from yeast or mammals.