By B. A. Rubin
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Additional resources for Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Immunity
Ethyl alcohol, 44 BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANT IMMUNITY acetaldehyde, acetone and a number of other substances have definitely been discovered, although the structure of some of them has not yet been determined. As an interesting example Birkinshaw's investigations (Birkinshaw, Bracken and Findlay, 1944) may be mentioned, regarding the nature of volatile products of metabolism, arising in the process of development of fungi attacking woody species (Lentinus lepidens and Trametes suaveolus).
Niveum produces a toxic substance phytonivein, related to Stearine, with the formula C 2 9H 4 6 0 2 (Hiroe and Nisimura, 1956). When used in concentrations 1:8000 to 1:64000 phytonivein not only induces the wilting of water melon plants, but also inhibits germination of their seeds (Nisimura, 1956). From the culture of Endothia parasitica two compounds were isolated — bianthraquinone, which was given the name of skyrine, with the empirical formula C 3 0 H 1 8 O 1 0 and diaportine, C 1 3 H 1 4 0 5 .
Thus, in the absence of magnesium ions Aspergillus oryzae is unable to form spores (Hofmann et ah, 1950). According to Zentmeyer (1944) zinc reduces the fungistatic effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline on Fusarium oxysporum. More detailed information on the role of mineral elements in the life of fungi can be found in reports by Perlman (1949) and Foster (1950). We are not going to examine all aspects of this question here, because the limiting importance of mineral elements for the development of fungi is manifested as a rule only when they are cultivated in artificial nutrient media, but not when they grow on a host plant.