By M. Levendowsky (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa
Here, both the chloroplast and a kinetosomal mitochondrion are attached to the root system. In Dinobryon a banded root runs from the flagellar bases to the eyespot (Kristiansen and Walne, 1976, 1977). Chrysophycean cells exhibit a variety of cell coverings. Some, such as the silicoflagellates, are entirely naked, for here the silica spicule is situated within the cell (van Valkenburg, 1971). Ochromonas species are also naked, and the function of microtubules in cell support has been investigated in detail (Bouck and Brown, 1973).
Recently Lee (1977a) proposed a completely new scheme in which algal groups with chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum are derived from a primary symbiotic association between a blue-green alga and a flagellate, as in his earlier scheme. Then a secondary symbiosis took place between this organism and a ciliate with both a macro- and a micronucleus, which resulted in four membranes around the symbiont. Later, some descendents of the double symbiotic organism lost the outer membrane of the micronucleus, and this membrane was replaced by the outer membrane of the symbiont.
Dinophyceae The Dinophyceae is a most distinctive group of organisms consisting mainly of biflagellate unicells. Their unique features include the structure of the flagella, the type of cell covering, the mesokaryotic nucleus, the trichocysts, and the pusule. Many possess chloroplasts, but some are entirely heterotrophic. The majority are free-living, but a few live as parasites and some, that have chloroplasts, as symbionts. Many genera and species have been studied by electron microscopy, and the earlier work has already been the subject of a review (Dodge, 1971b).