By Meir Shinitzky
An up to date evaluate of uncomplicated learn on biomembranes. during this quantity, premier specialists within the box give some thought to an important facets of sign transduction throughout organic membranes: - normal Mechanistic styles of sign Transduction - Receptors for Neurotransmitters and Peptide Hormones - G Proteins in sign Transduction - Membrane-associated Protein Kinases and Phosphatases - Phospholipases in sign Transduction the quantity is a superb complement to 'Biomembranes - actual facets' and 'Biomembranes - Structural and sensible Aspects', additionally edited via Meir Shinitzky. those 3 books jointly supply a entire flooring for knowing advanced physiological procedures. Meir Shinitzky, Ph. D., is Professor of Biophysics within the division of Membrane study and Biophysics, The Weizman Institute of technology, Rehovot, Israel. when you consider that 1971, his study has fascinated by a number of facets of membrane constitution and dynamics.
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Extra info for Biomembranes, Singal Transduction Across Membranes
Nearly all the products of the hydrolyzing action catalyzed by these phospholipases have been implicated in signal transduction [37,49]. The different phospholipases and their main reaction products - as far as they are involved in signal transduction - are discussed below. , 11-1, TNF-R, IFNa-R) have been reported to enhance cellular PLA, activity. PLA, catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 position, thus producing lysophospholipids and free fatty acids (Fig. 16), among which AA is the most prominent one.
Icosa-tetraenoic acids (HETEs). These eicosanoids are potent intracellular second messengers, but may also act in a paracrine or autocrine fashion as extracellular first messengers. L-PAF is a precursor for yet another bioactive mediator PAF. however, the purification and cloning of a class of higher molecular mass (85 kDa) cytosolic PLA2s has been reported. These high molecular mass cytosolic PLA2s are AA-selective, respond to physiological increases in intracellular Ca2+ and pH with enhanced activity, and translocate to the membrane in a Ca2+-dependent manner [3 1,1261.
Several phospholipases are involved in the production of second messengers from the phospholipids, acting by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the ester bonds as indicated. PLA, action results in the production of AA, PLC in DG and IP,, and PLD in PA. ) The released AA can be further metabolized into eicosanoids, by cyclooxygenases to PGs and TXs, or by lipoxygenases to LTs and HETEs (Fig. 17). The produced eicosanoids may act either as intracellular second messengers or in a paracrine or autocrine fashion as extracellular first messengers as for many of these bioactive lipids, such as PGs and LTs, G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified.