By Gerhard Fuchs
The biotechnology is a really vital zone within the constructed world's economies. This e-book, with contributions from a world array of specialists, explains why biotechnology businesses in several international locations focus in a small variety of destinations and what debts for the good fortune a few of these businesses then pass directly to have.
This attention-grabbing publication covers such topics as:
* the position of small organizations in US biotechnology clusters
* geographic clustering within the UK
* case reviews regarding the sectors in a cross-section of eu companies
With such overseas contributions, this ebook might be of curiosity to scholars and lecturers fascinated about business association, Innovation reviews and company association. not just that, pros with an curiosity in overseas enterprise also will locate this to be a really valuable learn.
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Additional resources for Biotechnology in Comparative Perspective (Studies in Global Competition, 16)
We go on to consider the migration of clusters from the ﬁrst generation clusters in California and Massachusetts to second generation clusters in Maryland and North Carolina, as well as older industrial states of New Jersey, New York and Illinois, through to the development in the early 1990s of activity in other states including Washington, Tennessee and Texas. We outline a few of the policies relating to these different generations of clusters, giving a ﬂavour of the range and number of policies and programmes at state level and what has characterised their success.
Humulin was developed by Genetech but Small ﬁrms in US biotechnology clusters 19 marketed by Eli Lilly, for $560 million of sales in 1993. Engerix-B was developed by Genetech but marketed by SmithKline Beecham for $480 million. RecombiNAK HB was developed by Chiron but marketed by Merck for $245 million. In addition, this third phase has undergone a shift by the established companies from the broad learning strategies of phase two and increasingly towards a more focused approach, targeting speciﬁc technologies.
In contrast, Atlanta not only has a very strong presence of biomedical researchers in the city, which is the home of Emory University, with one of the top medical schools in the country, and the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), but it is also rich in private industry. The inability of Atlanta to translate the scientiﬁc knowledge into a biotechnology industry may reﬂect the absence of venture capital and perhaps the fact that the industry has had a tradition of large corporations such as Coca Cola, but a relative absence of high-tech entrepreneurship.