By Reddi A.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are osteotro-phic and osteoinductive cytokines. BMPs are pleio-tropic cytokines with activities not just on bone and cartilage but additionally on mind, the teeth, epidermis, middle, lung, kidney, and a number of different tissues. They act on chemotaxis. mitosis, differentiation, mobile survival and telephone demise. The organic activities of BMPs are med-iated via binding to express BMP receptors varieties I and II. there's a collaboration among the receptors and downstream substrates corresponding to receptor-regulated R-Smads 1, five, and eight. The phosphorylated R-Smads companion with Co-Smad. Smad4. and input the nucleus to start up the transcription of BMP-responsive genes. Smad6 inhibits the job of kind I BMP receptor protein kinase. therefore, the BMP receptors supply a finely regulated homeostatic procedure with assessments and balances.
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Structural type and source: ﬂavone: 3 from branches of Eysenhardtia platycarpa; ﬂavonols: 4 from pods of Millettia erythrocalyx and sophoranodichromane C (5) from roots of Sophora ﬂavescens; ﬂavanones: tonkinochromane A (6) from roots of Sophora tonkinensis, and (ϩ)-apollineanin (7) from leaves of Tephrosia apollinea; dihydroﬂavonol: isomundulinol (8) from leaves and ﬂowers of Mundulea chapelieri; chalcone: cyclokuraridin (9) from roots of S. ﬂavescens; and dihydrochalcone: ﬂemingichalcone (10) from aerial parts of Flemingia macrophylla (Veitch & Grayer, 2008, and references therein).
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Species names used in the ﬂavonoid literature have been checked against the International Legume Database and Information Service World Database of Legumes (ILDIS, 2005) and the International Plant Names Index (IPNI, 2008), where the relevant botanical authorities and synonyms can also be found. 2. This represents the consensus opinion of a number of sources, including the Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae (Southon, 1994), the Leguminosae volumes of Chemotaxonomie der Pﬂanzen (Hegnauer & Hegnauer, 1994, 1996, 2001), specialized reviews on ﬂavonoid classes covering the literature from 1992 to 2003 in Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications (Andersen & Markham, 2006), and recent surveys of the literature on Leguminosae isoﬂavonoids (1997–2004) and ﬂavonoids and their glycosides (2004–2006) (Veitch, 2007; Veitch & Grayer, 2008).