Download Design in Nature: Learning from Trees by Claus Mattheck, W. Linnard PDF

By Claus Mattheck, W. Linnard

The fowl bone that you nibbled and threw away the previous day used to be a high-tech product! in truth it used to be a superlative lightweight layout functionally tailored to the mechanical necessities. No engineer on the earth has as but been in a position to replica this structural member, that's excellently optimized in its exterior form and its inner structure as regards minimal weight and greatest energy.
The tree trunk on that you lately carved your initials has additionally over the process its lifestyles, progressively more advantageous its inner and exterior constitution and tailored itself optimally to new lots. during its biomechanical self-optimization, it's going to heal the notch you chop as swiftly as attainable, with the intention to fix even the smallest weak spot, which would another way fee it its lifestyles within the subsequent storm.

This e-book is devoted to the knowledge of this biomechanical optimization of form. and never simply that: With the data of those ideal approaches of self-optimization in nature, options for the development of mechanical structural contributors might be built. already makes use of them. Nature indicates us tips on how to eco-design, to machines in line with nature's legislation governing buildings and shapes.

CLAUS MATTHECK: Born in Dresden, Germany in 1947. learn of physics in Dresden, PhD in theoretical physics in 1973. Habilitation within the box of wear keep watch over in 1985. Lectures on biomechanics on the collage of Karlsruhe. Head of the dep. of Biomechanics of the study Centre in Karlsruhe, the place the implications defined during this ebook have been received. numerous awards in technology and literature.

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Download Practical plant identification by Cullen J. PDF

By Cullen J.

Functional Plant id is a vital consultant to picking flowering plant households (wild or cultivated) within the northern hemisphere. information of plant constitution and terminology accompany sensible keys to spot 318 households into which flowering vegetation are divided. particularly designed for useful use, the keys can simply be labored backwards for checking identifications. Containing descriptions of households and listings of the genera inside, additionally it is a piece on extra id to ordinary and particular degrees. A successor to the author's bestselling The id of Flowering Plant households, this advisor is up-to-date, and keeps an identical concise undemanding technique. Cullen skillfully leads the reader from restrictive disciplines of older taxonomy, into an period of accelerating numbers of plant households outlined by way of DNA research. Aimed basically at scholars of botany and horticulture, it is a ideal creation to plant id for someone drawn to plant taxonomy.

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Download Host Plants of World Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae): A by Eduard Jendek, Janka Poláková PDF

By Eduard Jendek, Janka Poláková

The beetle genus Agrilus has over 3000 species which makes it the main various within the Animal state. Many species are critical pests of vegetation with excessive invasive capability. between them, the notoriously identified Agrilus planipennis invaded from Asia to North the USA the place it killed thousands and thousands of ash bushes, prompted regulatory organizations to implement quarantines and price municipalities, homeowners, nursery operators and woodland items industries thousands and thousands of bucks. The monograph offers coherent, finished and important overview on all recognized host vegetation for greater than 680 Agrilus species. All host vegetation have assigned the boldness index from 0-3 in keeping with the evaluated reliability which removes fake files. All unique and next references for specific vegetation are stated at each one Agrilus species. information are equipped from either, insect and plant viewpoints. effects are analyzed and illustrated by means of graphs and diagrams. the most influence of the monograph is visible in entomology, phytopathology, forestry, agriculture ecology and biocontrol.

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Download Membrane Transporter Diseases by Stefan Bröer, Carsten A. Wagner PDF

By Stefan Bröer, Carsten A. Wagner

Every mobile and organism faces the matter of areas, made of the 2 leaflets of the lipid producing a restricted house within which metabolic bilayer. the significance of site visitors and signaling throughout membranes is mirrored via the estimate and anabolic reactions ensue and while permitting access and go out of metabo­ that 20% of all genes within the human genome encode membrane proteins. A failure of any of lites, ions, proteins, and indications throughout its bor­ der. Evolution has solved the matter via those proteins could have dramatic con se­ producing lipid membranes that include trans­ quences for ceH functionality. lately a lot porters, ion channels, and receptors. In eukary­ recognition has been paid to illnesses ensuing otic cells, this challenge is exacerbated by means of the from nonfunctional ion channels ("chan­ presence of a number of organelles, that are con­ nelopathies"). now not unusually, a lot of those fined areas of their personal correct. Even the lipid ailments have an effect on the excitability of cells. membrane contains fairly separate Transporter illnesses (perhaps coined "carrier vi PREFACE diseases") are extra regarding metabolic dis­ each one bankruptcy is concluded by way of a precis, and eases, Transporters are often discovered on the so much chapters additionally include an summary of the start or the top of metabolic pathways medical beneficial properties of a specific transporter and therefore could have related results to illness. a lacking enzyme.

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Download Trees and forests : a colour guide : biology, pathology, by Bryan G. Bowes PDF

By Bryan G. Bowes

Timber are one of many dominant beneficial properties of our lifestyles in the world and play a basic position within the surroundings. This booklet goals to offer the reader an outline and knowing of bushes. topic components coated comprise ecology and conservation, tree anatomy and evolution, pathology, silviculture, propagation and surgical procedure. different chapters conceal timber from quite a few global habitats, from northern boreal and montane Read more...

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Download Biostatistik: Eine Einführung für Biologen und by Wolfgang Köhler PDF

By Wolfgang Köhler

Die Auswertung experimenteller Ergebnisse ist für Biologen und Agrarwissenschaftler ein wichtiges Handwerkszeug. Mit dieser intestine verständlichen Einführung in Grundlagen und Anwendungen der Biometrie ist ein schneller Einstieg in die Statistik möglich. Soweit wie möglich wird ohne Formeln und mathematische Symbolik die hinter den Verfahren stehende Grundidee komplexer statistischer Verfahren erläutert. Die five. Auflage enthält zusätzlich Schemata zur Versuchsplanung und Auswertung sowie ein erweitertes Glossar englischer Fachausdrücke.

Table of Contents

Cover

Biostatistik - Eine Einführung für Biologen und Agrarwissenschaftler,
Fünfte, aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage

ISBN 9783642292705 eISBN 9783642292712

Vorwort zur five. Auflage

Vorwort zur 1. Auflage

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Einleitung

Kapitel I: Merkmalsauswahl

§1 Wahl geeigneter Merkmale
1.1 Objektivität, Reliabilität, Validität
1.2 Die verschiedenen Skalen-Niveaus

Kapitel II: Beschreibende Statistik

§2 Tabellen zur Darstellung monovariabler Verteilungen
§3 Graphische Darstellung monovariabler Verteilungen
3.1 Verschiedene Arten graphischer Darstellung
3.2 Die Schaubilder einiger Verteilungstypen
3.3 Das Summenhäufigkeits-Polygon
3.4 ... als die Bilder lügen lernten
§4 Charakteristische Maßzahlen monovariabler Verteilungen
4.1 Die Lageparameter
4.2 Die Streuungsmaße
4.3 Zur Anwendung der eingeführten Maßzahlen
§5 Graphische Darstellung bivariabler Verteilungen
§6 Zur Korrelationsanalyse
6.1 Der Pearsonsche Maßkorrelationskoeffizient
6.2 Das Bestimmtheitsmaß
6.3 Zur Interpretation von Korrelationskoeffizient und
Bestimmtheitsmaß
6.4 Der Spearmansche Rangkorrelationskoeffizient
6.5 Der Kontingenzkoeffizient
§7 Zur Regressionsrechnung
7.1 Die Ermittlung einer Geradengleichung
7.2 Einige Achsentransformationen
7.3 Einige Datentransformationen

Kapitel III: Einführung in die schließende Statistik

§8 Grundgedanken zur Test-Theorie
8.1 Zielsetzung statistischer Tests
8.2 Fehler 1. paintings und 2. Art
8.3 Einseitige und zweiseitige Fragestellung
8.4 Prüfstatistik und Prüfverteilung
8.5 Vorgehen bei statistischen Tests
§9 Eine Auswahl wichtiger Tests
9.1 exams bei normalverteilten Grundgesamtheiten
9.2 checks zu ordinalskalierten Daten (Rangtests)
9.3 exams zu nominalskalierten Daten
§10 Vertrauensbereiche
10.1 Konfidenzintervalle für bei Normalverteilung
10.2 Konfidenzintervalle für die Differenz von _x und _y bei
Normalverteilung

Kapitel IV: Varianzanalyse bei normalverteilten Gesamtheiten

§11 Grundgedanken zur Varianzanalyse
11.1 Zerlegung der Varianz nach Streuungsursachen
11.2 Unterscheidung in feste und zufällige Effekte
§12 Einfaktorielle Varianzanalyse (Modell I)
12.1 Mathematische Bezeichnungen
12.2 Zu den Voraussetzungen der Varianzanalyse
12.3 Zerlegung in Streuungskomponenten
12.4 Durchführung der einfaktoriellen Varianzanalyse (Modell
I)
§13 Zweifaktorielle Varianzanalyse (Modell I)
13.1 Das zweifaktorielle Modell
13.2 Durchführung der zweifaktoriellen ANOVA (mehrfache
Besetzung, Modell I)
13.3 Die zweifaktorielle ANOVA ohne Wiederholungen (Modell I)
§14 Prüfung der Voraussetzungen
14.1 Zwei exams auf Varianzhomogenität
§15 a number of Mittelwertvergleiche
15.1 Einige A-priori-Testverfahren
15.2 Einige A-posteriori-Testverfahren
15.3 Anschlusstests bei signifikanten Wechselwirkungen
§16 Varianzanalyse mit zufälligen Effekten (Modell II)
16.1 Einfaktorielle Varianzanalyse mit zufälligen Effekten
(Modell II)
16.2 Zweifaktorielle Varianzanalyse mit zufälligen Effekten
(Modell II)
16.3 Zweifaktorielle Varianzanalyse mit festen und zufälligen
Effekten (gemischtes Modell)

Kapitel V: Varianzanalyse bei ordinalskalierten Daten

§17 Parameterfreie Verfahren für mehrere unabhängige Stichproben
17.1 Der H-Test (Kruskal-Wallis)
17.2 Der Nemenyi-Test für a number of Vergleiche
§18 Parameterfreie Verfahren für mehrere verbundene Stichproben
18.1 Der Friedman-Test (Rangvarianzanalyse)
18.2 Der Wilcoxon-Wilcox-Test für a number of Vergleiche

Kapitel VI: Regressionsanalyse

§19 Grundgedanken zur Regressionsanalyse
19.1 Interessierende Fragestellungen
19.2 Zu den Voraussetzungen einer Regressionsanalyse
19.3 Mathematische Bezeichnungen
§20 Lineare Regression bei einfacher Besetzung
20.1 Signifikanzprüfung auf Anstieg
20.2 Berechnung von Konfidenzintervallen
20.3 Durchführung der Regressionsanalyse (ohne Wiederholung)
§21 Lineare Regression bei mehrfacher Besetzung
21.1 Prüfung der Linearität
21.2 Durchführung der Regressionsanalyse (mit Wiederholung)
§22 Ergänzungen zur Varianz- und Regressionsanalyse
22.1 Zur Kovarianzanalyse
22.2 Zur multiplen linearen Regression

Kapitel VII: Resampling-basierte Inferenzstatistik

§23 Drei Randomisierungs-Verfahren
23.1 Permutations-Tests
23.2 Die Jackknife-Methode
23.3 Die Bootstrap-Methode

Kapitel VIII: Zur Versuchsplanung

§24 Am Anfang sollte die Versuchsplanung stehen
24.1 Treffgenauigkeit und Präzision
24.2 Einige Grundsätze der Versuchsplanung
24.3 Verschiedene Versuchsanordnungen
24.4 Zur Wahl des Stichprobenumfangs

Kapitel IX: Einige Grundlagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung

§25 Bezeichnungen, Axiome, Rechenregeln
25.1 Zufallsereignisse
25.2 Der Wahrscheinlichkeitsbegriff
25.3 Die axiomatische Definition der Wahrscheinlichkeit
25.4 Bedingte Wahrscheinlichkeit und Unabhängigkeit
25.5 Zufallsvariable
25.6 Kombinatorik oder die Kunst des Abzählens
§26 Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilungen
26.1 Zur Binomialverteilung
26.2 Zur Poissonverteilung
26.3 Zur Normalverteilung
26.4 Standardnormalverteilung und z-Transformation
§27 Prüfverteilungen
27.1 Die Normalverteilung als Prüfverteilung
27.2 Zur t-Verteilung von Student
27.3 Zur 2-Verteilung
27.4 Zur F-Verteilung

Anhang A: Schemata zur Versuchsplanung und Auswertung

Anhang B: Tabellen

Auswahl englischer Fachausdrücke

Literaturverzeichnis

Sachverzeichnis

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Download Forests and Peasant Politics in Modern France by Tamara L. Whited PDF

By Tamara L. Whited

Confronting an ecological hindrance in 1860, French officers initiated an remarkable coverage of alpine reforestation. The Alps, Pyrenees, and Massif significant mountains have been fragile and degraded, medical specialists decided, and the salvation of the mountains (for the good thing about lowland farmers and concrete parts) will require watershed restorations and decreased entry to woodland and pasture for alpine peasants. This e-book is an environmental and political background of the disputes over the makes use of of mountains and forests in France from the mid-nineteenth century to the eve of worldwide struggle II.

Grounded in unique case stories of 2 highland communities—Jarrier in Savoie and Massat in Ariège—the ebook sheds new mild on the most said conflicts among upland peasants and the nation in sleek France. Whited argues that the kingdom didn't brush off doubtless marginal humans in a brief, decisive stream justified by way of the imperatives of modernization. as a substitute, protesting peasants hired an more and more versatile arsenal of political responses that compelled the country to back off and compromise.

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Download Forestry budgets and accounts by Bright, G., Ellwood, N., Bilek, T. (Eds.) PDF

By Bright, G., Ellwood, N., Bilek, T. (Eds.)

This ebook, written by way of vivid, presents details for college students and practitioners at the instruments on monetary administration in the context of forestry. issues lined contain the administration procedure, budgeting steps for revenue, funds and capital, recording, debts development and appraisal, evaluate of different investments, info know-how and tax. The e-book is meant for an international viewers, however it additionally contains particular appendices concerning the content material to the us (by Ellwood), and Australia and New Zealand (by Bilek). to be had In Print

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Download Conifer Reproductive Biology by Claire G. Williams PDF

By Claire G. Williams

This compendium on conifer reproductive biology is meant as a textual content complement for plant biology classes. the sort of quantity turns out well timed simply because wisdom of version flowering vegetation is increasing so quickly that every new plant biology textual content has much less written on conifers than the final. Conifer Reproductive Biology turns out wanted as a really good botany reference for all times technological know-how pros, graduate scholars and complex undergraduates. Its content material used to be selected for its relevance to these operating in lifestyles sciences: ecology, evolution, genomics, environmental sciences, genetics, forestry, conservation or even immunology. Its content material has additionally been formed through a pattern in the direction of the integrative research of conifer reproduction.

"The chapters that mirror the author's services are masterly and that i realized a lot from them. Bringing jointly this knowledge couldn't were performed via anyone else."
Professor Philip Barry Tomlinson, Harvard woodland, Harvard college and nationwide Tropical Botanical backyard, Kalaheo, hello, USA.

"Conifer Reproductive Biology is a masterful compendium of the literature and a considerate analysis of what we all know (and don't know) approximately how those interesting, varied, and historical vegetation reproduce. i like to recommend it to any and all drawn to plant life." Karl J. Niklas, the freedom Hyde Bailey Professor of Plant Biology, division of Plant Biology, Cornell college, Ithaca, manhattan 14853, USA.

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Download Forests in a Market Economy by Erin O. Sills, Karen Lee Abt PDF

By Erin O. Sills, Karen Lee Abt

This e-book attracts jointly contributions from wooded area economists within the study Triangle of North Carolina, with co-authors from associations world wide. It represents our universal trust that rigorous empirical research in an monetary framework can tell woodland coverage. We intend the ebook as a advisor to the empirical equipment that we have got stumbled on most respected for addressing either conventional and modem components of outrage in woodland coverage, together with trees creation and markets, a number of use forestry, and valuation of non-market advantages. 'The e-book editors and such a lot bankruptcy authors are affiliated with 3 associations within the examine Triangle: the Southern examine Station of the USDA wooded area carrier (K. Abt, Butry, Holmes, Mercer, Moulton, Prestemon, Wear), the dep. of Forestry at North Carolina nation collage (R. Abt, Ahn, Cubbage, Sills), and the Environmental and normal source Economics software of analysis Triangle Institute (Murray, Pattanayak). different Triangle associations also are represented one of the publication authors: Duke collage (Kramer) and the Forestland crew (Zinkhan). as well as our basic affiliations, many people are adjunct college and/or graduates of Triangle universities. lots of our co-authors additionally graduated from or have been formerly affiliated with Triangle associations. therefore, the choice of subject matters, equipment, and case stories displays the paintings of this actual community of economists, and to a point, our place within the southeastern usa. even though, our paintings and the chapters surround different areas of the USA and the realm, together with Latin the US and Asia.

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