By Eric J. Mash, Russell A. Barkley
Now in an absolutely revised and up to date moment version, this authoritative textual content integrates state of the art idea and empirical study on a variety of baby and adolescent issues. that includes contributions from prime students and clinicians, the quantity is outstanding for its finished assurance of the organic, mental, and social-contextual determinants of early life difficulties. each one bankruptcy makes a speciality of a particular affliction, describing its features, developmental direction, and epidemiology; outlining present diagnostic and class schemes; deciding upon threat and protecting components; and discussing implications for prevention and therapy. together with a brand new bankruptcy on adolescent substance use problems, the second one variation has been up to date all through to mirror vital advances within the box. integrated is rising wisdom within the components of neurobiology, genetics, developmental psychology, and feelings, in addition to new findings on intercourse ameliorations in psychopathology and long term results for kids in danger.
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Additional info for Child Psychopathology (2nd Edition)
Protective and Vulnerability Factors Various protective and vulnerability factors have been found to influence children’s reactions to potential risk factors or stressors. These include factors within the child, the family, and the community (Osofsky & Thompson, 2000; Werner & 1. A Developmental–Systems Perspective Smith, 1992). , 2001; Walden & Smith, 1997). , a child who is energetic, affectionate, cuddly, goodnatured, and/or easy to deal with), which makes the child engaging to other people; early coping strategies that combine autonomy with help seeking when needed; high intelligence and scholastic competence; effective communication and problem-solving skills; positive self-esteem and emotions; high self-efficacy; and the will to be or do something (Fredrickson, 2001; Gilgun, 1999; Werner, 1995).
The first, “intensity,” refers to the magnitude of behavior as excessive or deficient. The second, “frequency,” refers to the severity of the problem behavior, or how often it does or does not occur. Third, the “duration” of behavior must be considered. Some difficulties are transient and spontaneously remit, whereas others persist over time. To these parameters, we would add a qualitative parameter reflecting how 26 I. ” It is crucial that the intensity, frequency, duration, and atypicality of the child’s behavior be appraised with respect to what is considered normative for a given age.
Evidence in support of the continuity between child and adult disorders is equivocal and depends on a number of methodological factors related to research design, assessment instruments, the nature of the study sample, and the type and severity of the disorder (Garber, 1984). In general, the literature suggests that child psychopathology is continuous with adult disorders for some, but not all, problems. As we discuss below, there is evidence that appears to favor the stability of externalizing problems over internalizing problems.