By C. M. Wood, S. F. Perry (auth.), Professor Dr. Raymond Gilles (eds.)
This quantity is a kind of released from the complaints of the invited lectures to the 1st foreign Congress of Comparative body structure and Biochemistry I equipped at Liege (Belgium) in August 1984 less than the auspices of the component of Comparative body structure and Biochemistry of the overseas Union of organic Sciences. In a normal foreword to those diversified volumes, it kind of feels to me applicable to think about in brief what could be the comparative process. dwelling organisms, past the range in their morphological kinds, have advanced a common diversity of simple options to deal with the several difficulties, either organisma1 and environmenta1 with which they're confronted. quickly after the flip of the century, a few biologists discovered that those recommendations should be top comprehended within the body paintings of a comparative procedure integrating result of physiologica1 and biochemica1 reviews performed on the organismic, mobile and molecular degrees. the improvement of this strategy among either physiologists and biochemists remained, despite the fact that, super gradual until eventually recently.
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Additional info for Circulation, Respiration, and Metabolism: Current Comparative Approaches
J Fish Res Board Can 19:409-436 Booth JH (1978) The distribution of blood flow in gills of fish: application of a new technique to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Exp BioI 73:119-129 Booth JH (1979) The effects of oxygen supply, epinephrine and acetylcholine on the distribution of blood flow in trout gills. J Exp BioI 83:31-39 Bone Q (1978) Locomotor muscle. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol VII. Academic, New York, pp 361-424 Boutilier RG, Aughton P, Shelton G (1984) O 2 and CO 2 transport in relation to ventilation in the Atlantic mackerel, Seomber seombrus.
A second challenge is that of increasing ventilation sufficiently to maintain a favorable gradient for oxygen diffusion to arterial blood. Most lizards are capable of maintaining arterial oxygen con ten t during exercise, although they generally do not maintain the high levels of saturation typical of mammals. The third challenge is maintaining acid-base balance in the face of hydrogen ion produced as an end product of anaerobic metabolism. Buffering this hydrogen ion production is the role of the bicarbonate buffer system.
Changes in Cl- influx were more marked than those in Na+ influx, suggesting that modulation ofCC /HCO; ,OH- exchange is more importan tthan modulation of Na+/H+, NH; exchange in dynamic acid-base regulation (see also Wood et al. 1984). However the situation was complicated by increases in the efflux components for both ions which did not always mirror the changes in influx. These may have reflected changes in the extent of simple diffusive efflux, exchange diffusion, and/or a reversal of coupled acid-base/ion exchange pumps.